With regard to the concept of a free trade area, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT 1994) originally provided for the inclusion of only trade in goods.  An agreement with a similar purpose, namely the improvement of trade in services, is referred to as the “economic integration agreement” in Article V of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS).  However, in practice, the term is often used to refer to agreements that do not only concern goods, but also services and even investments. The conflict escalated into a trade dispute that affected a dozen Australian industries and threatened billions of dollars worth of exports of agricultural products, wood and resources to China. Most Swiss agreements are concluded under the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). In addition, Switzerland also has the right to negotiate free trade agreements without efTA participation, as has been the case, for example, with China, Japan and the Faroe Islands. The objective of preferential origin is to make goods duty-free when exporting to a free trade agreement or to subject them to a reduced duty. This document is accompanied by a certificate of movement of goods or a declaration of country of origin on invoice. Compliance with non-preferential country of origin rules does not exempt goods from customs when imported into a third country – these country of origin rules only apply if the destination country requires a country of origin certificate for importation. This should not be confused with the issue of Swissness (“Made in Switzerland”), which is subject to another set of rules. In the United States, free trade zones are called the “Foreign Trade Zones Act of 1934”  where ftZ offers tariff advantages and tax exemptions on public and local stocks.
In other countries, they have been designated as “export processing zones without tariffs,” “export-free zones,” “export-free zones,” “free zones,” “industrial free zones,” “investment promotion zones,” “maquiladoras” and “special economic zones.”   Some were previously referred to as “free ports.” Free zones range from specific production facilities to areas where legal systems and economic regulation deviate from the normal rules of the country concerned. Free zones can reduce taxes, tariffs and regulatory requirements for business registration. Areas around the world often offer specific exceptions to normal immigration procedures and restrictions on foreign investment and other characteristics. The free zones aim to promote economic activity and employment that could occur elsewhere.  We see that EAEU`s exports to China are dominated by natural resources. As a result, the EAEU as a whole faces both the objective of increasing and diversifying its turnover. This can only be done if the production of high value-added products is increased and mechanisms are found to introduce them to the Chinese market.