Similar trade data are not readily available to other countries. However, industry reports indicate that Mexico and Canada are the main markets for Iowas32 pork products and grain products from some Northern Plain states.33 But support for SPS-Plus is not universal. Some groups argue that efforts to change spS rules are an attempt to reduce food security regulations that some food companies see as barriers to trade and production.137 Others argue that the SPS chapter of the TPP should not be a draft free trade agreement. They argue that such changes “would further weaken and could conflict with the global standards that define bodies for food and plant security.” 138 The past decade has been a rich time for the study of trade policy. Below, I suggest some lessons that can be drawn from the experience of the 1990s, although a more systematic study will undoubtedly lead to a definitive list in the future: during the NAFTA debates in the United States in 1999, these issues were sufficiently strengthened with Congress` opposition to the agreement. With NAFTA experiencing serious difficulties before the U.S. Congress in August 1993, the U.S. Trade Representative endorsed the arguments of U.S. sugar producers that Mexico`s access to the U.S. sugar market should be reduced.
At first, both Mexican sugar producers and the Mexican government were reluctant to make concessions to the original agreement. But at the last minute, the Mexican sugar industry agreed to “dilute” the original sugar deal with a “secondary agreement.” Office of the White House, Presidential Memorandum regarding withdrawal of the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Agreement, January 23, 2017. See also CRS Insight IN10646, The United States Withdraws from the TPP. The TPP is said to have concluded a free trade agreement between the United States and 11 countries in Asia and the Pacific, including Canada and Mexico. For more information on Canada`s dairy supply management system, see CRS Insight IN10692, New Proves Disruptive Pricing Regime for U.S. Milk Producers. Canada`s supply management system limits the availability of domestic and imported dairy, poultry and egg products to give Canadian producers higher yields and provide consumers with greater price stability by providing price support to production, limiting domestic production and imposing import quotas. His response was to negotiate external trade agreements.
The United States would reduce its tariffs, but only in exchange for partner countries that reduce their tariffs. Congress approved such negotiations in the pioneering Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934. The new law also provided that lower rates, once negotiated, could be applied by the President`s proclamation. Other congressional action was not necessary. And lower interest rates would be extended to all major U.S. trading partners. NAFTA was designed to remove most of the trade barriers between the United States, Canada and Mexico over a 15-year period. The original agreement did not include the U.S.-Canada sugar trade, as this issue was covered by the 1989 U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement.
Although nafta has led to the removal of tariffs on most agricultural products and a redefinition of import quotas for certain raw materials as tariff quotas (TRQs), some products – such as U.S. dairy and poultry exports to Canada – are still subject to high tariffs above quotas.